How to fix E- 2 or Err2

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  • See the Sales FAQs for Frequently Asked Sales and Preorder Questions
  • The Knowledgebase is organized into a series of questions and answers having to do mostly with technical troubleshooting and understanding of kilns.
  • Although we write this for our own kilns many of these articles apply to other makes - although L&L takes no responsibility for that.
  • Many Knowledgebase articles have Actions, PDFs and Videos associated with them.
  • Actions are specific actions for you to take during the troubleshooting or repair process.
  • Each Action may also have Videos and PDFs associated with it and, in addition, specific Cautions.
How to fix E- 2 or Err2
  1. Err2 can only happen in a hold segment.
  2. One of the 3 temps has to be 50°F higher than the hold temp for this error to happen.
  3. First, check the tightness of all 4 screws on each TC- be sure they are not so tight that they have partially cut through the wires. Look for any signs of overheated TC wires- if found, replace them immediately.
  4. While the kiln is cold, plug it in but leave the toggle switch off. Does one ring of elements get hot anyway? If so, that is a stuck relay which must be replaced.
  5. Otherwise, it is either a programming or loading error or possibly a bad DynaTrol. Loading errors might occur if everything is in the bottom of the kiln, something is too close to a TC, or there are too many short shelves in the bottom or somewhere in the kiln.
  6. Err2 usually happens on a down-ramp, often because of how the kiln cools naturally with the load placed as it is in the kiln- one of the TC readings is not cooling off as fast as the others, and when the coolest TC reaches the set point, Err2 can happen.
  7. When programming- using a cooling rate that is closer to the actual cooling rate sometimes helps. Try 400 or 500F/ hr for a cooling rate. Still a problem? Set the SHTO setting in the hidden other menu to OFF and try that.
  8. This can happen in a small empty kiln during a test firing. If that is the case then a load in the kiln will fix the problem.
  9. Check to make sure relays are connected to the proper outputs. Check that thermocouples are connected to the proper inputs.

Additional Actions to Take

  1. Empty the kiln.
  2. Turn kiln on using a fast program such as FAST GLAZE (USr3) until elements are red.
  3. Open the door carefully and check if each of the elements are glowing with approximately the same brightness.

CAUTION: The power does not turn off when the lid is opened. Do NOT put your hand inside the kiln while it is on.

  1. Unplug kiln or turn off circuit breaker if the kiln is wired direct to your power supply. If you can not physically be sure the power is disconnected (for instance is you see that the cord is unplugged you KNOW there is no power coming into the kiln) then check the voltage at the power connection pluck with your multi-meter.
  2. Unplug kiln.
  3. Open up the control panel. This will be a little different on each kiln series.
  4. Remove or open the panels that cover the element connections.
  5. Look at internal wiring.
  6. Specifically look at wires going from power connection block to the on/off switch, then to the control fuse, and finally to the control transformer.
  7. Make sure all wires inside control panel are connected.
  8. Look for any burned spots or deteriorating wire.
  9. Look for any short circuits. This might be caused by a wire losing its insulation and touching another component for instance. Typically if there are any short circuits there will be some evidence of a burn on the metal the wire touched.
  10. Look for dirt or foreign material. Some material can be an electrical conductor and could cause a short circuit. Clean out any dirt.
  11. Check all power wires for firm connections.
  12. Pull off and reseat all spade connector connections of power wires to remove oxides and ensure good connection.
Your power relays are one of the most important components in your kiln. They execute the will of the computer controller, giving power to the elements only when requested. These power relays are also mechanical switches which will wear out over time. Worn out relays can be the cause of slow or incomplete firings, error codes (E-1, E-d), etc. Other more obvious signs of relay failure are if a zone is lagging behind in temperature considerably or if you notice an entire ring of elements not heating/glowing. 
The surest way to test your relays is by using a multimeter to check input, output, and signal voltage. If you do not have access to a multimeter you can run a paper test, which will give you some indication of whether or not you have a relay out.
Paper Test: http://hotkilns.com/run-paper-test & hotkilns.com/
Here we will go through the process of testing relays and contactors as well as what to make of any test results. 
  1. Another way to check the relays (or bad elements) is to check the temperatures of each zone by pressing "1", "2" and "3" in sequence and recording the temperatures of each thermocouple at intervals over the length of the firing. If one zone is consistently firing at a lower temperature then you probably have either burned out elements or a bad relay.
  2. If the relay does not make a soft clicking noise when the kiln is turned on try turning the kiln off and on and then restarting the program.
  3. Remove panel.
  4. Set your multi-meter the approximately 24 volts AC. Check the voltage coming into the coil of the Power Relay. You can tell which wires these are because they will be the small wires coming from the control. This test will tell you if you are getting power to the relay coil which actuates the relay. Unless the relay is actuated by the control you will get no output from the power side of the relay.
  5. With panel plugged in and firing check output from Power Relay with your digital multi-meter. The meter should be set to the next highest voltage above 240 volts AC. Output should be approximately the rated voltage of the kiln when it is supposed to be calling for power to the elements.

CAUTION: LIVE ELECTRICITY IS INVOLVED WITH SOME OF THESE TESTS. This test should only be done by an experienced person familiar with electricity.

See this video:

  1. Carefully examine thermocouple tip. This is the exposed welded joint at the end of the thermocouple that is not covered up by the ceramic tube.
  2. To do this you will have to remove the thermocouple from its protection tube (if it is a kiln that has one of our protection tubes). You can do this with the kiln disconnected from power.
  3. Look for corrosion - especially if it severe. These thermocouple tips will oxidize and otherwise corrode over time. That is normal. There is some point, however, at which the corrosion affects the ability of the tip to work (thermocouples work by generating a small voltage at the tip caused by two different metals reacting to each other).
  4. Make sure the two wires are securely joined. One of the things that can cause an intermittent problem is a bad weld. If the two wires touch each other (even if they are not welded) they may work temporarily. However, if the weld is not secure then the wires could separate when the kiln heats up and cause an intermittent failure.
  5. If the thermocouple tip looks healthy then test the control board.
  • Unplug kiln.
  • Open the outer control box. See the Assembly Instructions if necessary.
  • Using your Multimeter set on Resistance or Ohms, 200, check resistance on the wires numbered 1 and 2 and then again between 3 and 4.  These wires are thick black wires that attach to the terminal strip that carry power from the relays to the elements.
  • If you check the resistance at this point, the values you should get are as follows: 240 Volt Elements: 20.8 ohms, 220 Volt Elements: 17.6 ohms, 208 Volt Elements: 15.6 ohms.
  • The values should be within 6-12% of the listed values. Typically the resistance increases over time and use, and this makes the power generated by the elements decrease. Depending on the temperature one is firing at, wider variation may not be problematic.
  • In addition, here are the values for the individual elements: 240 Volt Elements: 10.4 ohms, 220 Volt Elements: 8.8 ohms, 208 Volt Elements: 7.8 ohms. Individual element resistance values are important as a way to provide a means of checking specific element resistance before you put elements in the kiln.

See this tutorial on how to use a multimeter.


  1. Make sure you have programmed the kiln properly and it is supposed to be firing.
  2. Read the Operation instructions.
  3. Do a Program Review as soon as you start firing. (For DynaTrols - see this video)
  1. Check the tightness of all connections. Do this by wiggling the connector to make sure it is not loose.
  2. Examine all connections for any sign of oxidation or discoloration.
  3. Examine all wires for signs that the wire may have burned.
  4. Make sure all wires are connected to their proper connection point. You may have to compare the kiln to the wiring diagram to be sure of this. This step would be particularly important if a wire has come loose.
  5. Look for any place where a wire may have shorted against the metal case or a component.

CAUTION: Turn power off to kiln form the circuit breaker or unplug the kiln.

INTRODUCTION TO RESISTANCE

The most common cause of kiln slowdown, E-1 messages, and failure to reach temperature is element wear. As your elements age  they generally increase in electrical resistance. According to Ohm's Law, when resistance, measured in Ohms, increases, both Watts and Amperes will decrease, assuming Voltage remains constant. Since Amps and Watts are the measures of current and power respectively, they can be thought of as the amount of juice that your kiln has to generate heat. Obviously if you don't have enough power, your kiln will fire slowly and might not even reach the desired temperature.

INTERPRETING RESULTS

Using resistance, we can tell exactly how much power your kiln has lost over the course of your element's life. For example on an e23T that uses 240V, a brand new kiln section would read about 14.5 ohms. If you measured this same kiln section after several months of cone 6 firings let's say and the reading was 16.5 Ohms, you would know that this section of elements has lost approximately 14% of it's power (16.5/14.5=1.138, or close to a 14% increase). Again, an increase in resistance means decrease in power. A very general rule of thumb is that most people will typically begin to notice some slowdown once you've lost more than 10% of your power. It will certainly vary based on the kiln you have, your voltage, as the types of firing you do. People only doing low fire work will continue to get by on lower power than those needing to go to higher temperatures (cone 6+). As you can see, measuring your element Ohms is the best way to identify when elements need replacing.

Keep in mind that the ohms on the wiring diagram are per ELEMENT while your reading will be per SECTION. How you figure out the section ohms depends on whether the elements are wired in Parallel or Series. Most kilns are wired in Parallel except for JD230V and most 18" kilns like the e18T. For a parallel kiln you take the per element ohms listed and divide by the number of elements per section. Ex. e23T 240V 1 Phase is 28.9 Ω per element with two elements per ring = 14.5 Ω per section.   Ex. 2. JD2927 240V is 36.5 Ω per element w/ three elements per ring = 12.2 Ω per section. See this link for more info on Series vs. Parallel

Here we will show how to best measure your element resistance for two groups of L&L Kilns, into which most models fall.

EASY-FIRE, DURA-FIRE, EQUAD-PRO, LIBERTY-BELLE, DOLL, SCHOOL MASTER

In these series' of kilns a piggy-backed control panel covers up the element terminals.

  1. Turn the power to the kiln completely OFF and unplug it if possible. If it is direct wired, then you should at least turn off all power at the disconnect switch or circuit breaker.
  2. Open the outermost control panel by unscrewing it either from the element cover box in the case of Easy-Fire, eQuad Pro, School Master and Liberty Belle kilns or from the kiln body in the case of Doll kilns.
  3. Once you open up that control panel you will see the element power wire terminal strip. See the picture. It will have numbered wires coming from the element terminal blocks and wires connecting to the power relays. There are two wires per kiln section/ring, so numbers 1 & 2 are for the top section, 3 & 4 for the middle, and 5 & 6 for the bottom section on a three ring kiln.
  4. Set your multimeter to Ohms (Omega symbol Ω) and using your testing leads, place one in between the two tabs/terminals w/ #1 wires connected. There is a small circular divot that the lead fits into (see picture). Put the other lead on terminal #2 and make note of the reading. Repeat the process for 3 & 4 and then for 5 & 6. Remember that each pair of wires represents one section.
  5. Compare your readings to those on the wiring diagram in your instruction manual. Keep in mind that the ohms on the wiring diagram are per ELEMENT while your reading will be per SECTION. See above for more info on understanding the readings.

CHECKING RESISTANCE ON AN EASY-FIRE KILN

JUPITER, DAVINCI

In these series' of kilns, the control panel is separated from the kiln body and the element terminals are connected to the controls via external jumper cords or plugs.

  1. Turn the power to the kiln completely OFF and unplug it if possible. If it is direct wired, then you should at least turn off all power at the disconnect switch or circuit breaker.
  2. Unplug the first jumper cord from the control panel.
  3. Set your multimeter to Ohms (Omega symbol Ω) and using your testing leads, place one lead on each of the "hot" prongs. They will be the flat ones.
  4. Make note of the reading and move on to the next one.
  5. Compare your readings to those on the wiring diagram in your instruction manual. Keep in mind that the ohms on the wiring diagram are per ELEMENT while your reading will be per SECTION. See above for more info on understanding the readings.

See this tutorial on how to use a multimeter.

  1. If uneven firing occurs persistently, vary methods of loading weight to match the firing characteristics of the kiln.
  2. If elements typically fire hot at the top of the kiln put more weight in the top to absorb that heat, and vice versa.
  3. Ensure that weight is put at posts under the bottom shelf. The bottom shelf should be at least 1/2" to 1" above the floor of the kiln.

TIP: The longer posts can be laid down on their sides to get a perfect amount of space under the bottom shelf.